'''Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes''' (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist
and campaigner for eugenics
and women's rights. She made significant contributions to plant palaeontology and coal classification, and was the first female academic on the faculty of the University of Manchester
. With her second husband, Humphrey Verdon Roe
, Stopes founded the first birth control
clinic in Britain. Stopes edited the newsletter ''Birth Control News'', which gave explicit practical advice. Her sex manual
'' (1918) was controversial and influential, and brought the subject of birth control into wide public discourse. Stopes opposed abortion, arguing that the prevention of conception was all that was needed.